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1st exercise: European Areas
There are numerous organisations and areas on the European continent. The European integration cannot be limited to the European Union only. The political, economic and legal integration happens on many levels and through many channels that to some extent overlap and it is easy sometimes to confuse them. Nonetheless, it is important to understand the institutional structure of the European integration, as it provides frames and context for the integration on the social and individual level.
- The following exercise is typical for the first module of the studies, ‘European Integration and the Development of European Societies since 1945’.
- In the table below, please match the countries to the European organisations / institutions they belong to.
- Countries may be a member of several institutions.
EU – European Union
EU FMS – EU founding member state
EEA – European Economic Area
€ – Eurozone
Schengen – Schengen Area
CoE – Council of Europe
EU CC – EU candidate country
Iceland has been an official candidate state of the European Union since 2010, although the negotiations are frozen since mid-2013. It is a member of EFTA, the European Free Trade Organization and as such is also member of the European Economic Area. It is a member of the Schengen Zone as well. It joined the Council of Europe in 1950.
The United Kingdom is one of the founding members of Council of Europe. It joined the European Union in 1973. It is a member of the European Economic Area. Due to its geographical location on an island it is not member of the Schengen Zone. The UK received an opt-out from the monetary union and is not a member of the Eurozone.
You will receive feedback to each answer when you click on the icon .
28 countries are currently members of the European Union.
The European Communities, which later became the European Union, has been founded by the so-called Inner Six, i.e. Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
The European Economic Area was created in 1994 as an agreement between the European Union and the European Free Trade Association that allows the EFTA states to participate in the EU’s internal market without being members of the EU. Currently it comprises all EU member states (with the exception of Croatia, which awaits ratification of the enlargement agreement) and three EFTA countries: Iceland, Lichtenstein and Norway. Switzerland did not join the treaty and cooperates with the EU on bilateral grounds instead.
The Eurozone, officially called the euro area, comprises 18 member states of the EU that adopted the euro (€) as their common currency. The current members are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain. Denmark and the United Kingdom obtained op-outs and are not obliged to join. Sweden gained a de facto opt-out by using a legal loophole. Lithuania plans to adopt the euro in 2015. The remaining six countries are not currently taking any steps in this direction for various reasons.
The Schengen Area is a group of 26 European countries that have abolished passport and immigration controls at their common borders.
The Council of Europe is an international organisation promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation. It was founded in 1949, has 47 member states with some 800 million citizens, and is an entirely separate body from the European Union. One of its best-known bodies is the European Court of Human Rights.
An EU candidate country is a state that applied for the membership and has been accepted by the EU as such. Currently, there are five recognised candidates for membership: Iceland (applied 2009, recognised 2010), Macedonia (applied 2004, recognised 2005), Montenegro (applied 2008, recognised 2010), Serbia (applied 2009, recognised 2012) and Turkey (applied 1987, recognised 1999). Serbia and Macedonia have not yet started negotiations to join, Iceland suspended theirs in 2013. Albania applied in 2009, however has not been granted the status by the EU yet.